The longest active anticommunist partizans

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tom_deba
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The longest active anticommunist partizans

Post by tom_deba » 30 Sep 2006 16:37

Can you give me some examples of the longest active anticommunist partizans in each country from Soviet controlled part of Europe?

Tom

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michalst
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Post by michalst » 04 Oct 2006 21:09

More or less until 1947-1949 in Poland, agree? There existed some minor "forces" which consisted of maximum 8-9 people until mid 1950ths.

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Sotka
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Post by Sotka » 06 Oct 2006 18:11

Hi!

'Forest brothers' fought till late 50's in baltic countries. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_brothers.
August Sabe, the last surviving Forest Brother in Estonia, killed himself when discovered by KGB agents in 1978.

Also UPA in Ukraine fought till 50's.

Regards,

Tuomo

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gaebelein
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Post by gaebelein » 23 Oct 2006 01:45

My wife is Lithuanian. I have listened to stories from her mother about how her brothers, just children at the time were rounded up by Stalinist forces at the end of the war, in part to deny active partisan groups replacement manpower. They were never seen again. I have also listened to stories from her grandmother of partisan groups controling large areas of the countryside, and fighting Interior Ministry and KGB forces to stalemates. From my research I can say that such forces were active until the late 1950s. I have recently submited a freedom of information request to the CIA regarding any information of anti-communist partisan forces in the Baltic countries and Ukraine. I have had a response, saying that such information exists and they are in the process of collectiong it. To my knowledge, these froces were at least in part, supplied and funded by the British and American inteligence organs. I await more from the CIA.

pitman
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Post by pitman » 23 Oct 2006 20:57

It's kind of a misnomer saying that they "fought" into the 1950s. By the 1950s, most of these groups in the Baltic States and the Ukraine had been devastated. Civilian deportations, KGB infiltration, well-timed Soviet amnesty offers, the rigors of wilderness living, the relatively passive 'wait for World War III' policies that many groups had, the lack of viable means of outside support, poor leadership (in part because of attrition), the normal casualties and fall-off that such movements had--all of these things took their toll on the Forest Brothers and the Ukrainian nationalists.

By the 1950s, in many of these areas, the survivors had devolved into one of two types of people: 1) mere survivors or fugitives, who did little but hide out in the forests, and 2) criminals. Soviet propaganda liked to refer to all of these people as "bandits" rather than representatives of any legitimate cause, but in actual fact many of these groups did resort to robbery in order to finance their activities and resupply themselves, and as time went on, some of these groups essentially did change from being ideologically based groups to being actual bandits, interested more in robbery than ideology.

You can contrast this condition from the 1950s with the conditions that existed in the 1940s, esp. 1946-1947, when such groups controlled large parts of the countryside, had extensive organizations, and could give the KGB (and its predecessors) significant problems.

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''X''
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Post by ''X'' » 26 Oct 2006 14:27

Image

Troop of forest brothers led by Ülo Altermann practising shooting

Image

Young Lithuanian Forest Brothers

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Sotka
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Post by Sotka » 27 Oct 2006 20:00

pitman wrote:It's kind of a misnomer saying that they "fought" into the 1950s.
It's true that this time the main famous rebellious organisations (with a secret central command somewhere in a current country) were destructed in 50's. But small cells (few mens in a one team, especiually in Baltic countries) continued to fight after that.They never gave up.

I think the breakdown of "strong" resistance movement came circa 47-49. Deportations of relatives and threatening took toll. Mentally and physically it was a challenge, especially if you were in resistance and you knew that more strikes meant more deportations.

/Tuomo

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Askold
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Post by Askold » 28 Oct 2006 19:23

UPA was oficialy dissbanned in 1956, although I remember reading in a newspaper of an old man who came out of the hiding in 1991, when Ukraine became independent!

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Lit.
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Post by Lit. » 06 Dec 2006 21:35

After Germany lost it's war to USSR, Lithuania continued it's own during 1944-1965, waiting for the support of Free Democracies.
http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... 720#615720

http://www.genocid.lt/centras/lt/149/c/

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G. Trifkovic
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Post by G. Trifkovic » 12 Dec 2006 01:38

In Yugoslavia, last chetnik groups were destroyed only by mid-fifties.

Cheers,

Gaius

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Post by Eugen Pinak » 12 Dec 2006 09:37

Askold wrote:UPA was oficialy dissbanned in 1956, although I remember reading in a newspaper of an old man who came out of the hiding in 1991, when Ukraine became independent!
UPA was officially disbanded in 1949, but of course it doesn't ended armed strupple.

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Askold
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Post by Askold » 12 Dec 2006 16:59

I thought the order to disban UPA came in 50's after its last commander Vasyl Kuk was arrested in 56. He was then forced to hand out such order. In 1949 they decided to relocate part of UPA units to the West - that is when large number of UPA went trough the Czech and Bavarian forests and emmerged in US occupation zone.

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Post by Eugen Pinak » 12 Dec 2006 19:20

No - it was the order to disband the whole UPA by the end of 1949 (UGVR's dercee #2 from 29 August 1949).

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Re: The longest active anticommunist partizans

Post by Agrarian Hungarian » 22 Aug 2009 06:12

This was meant for gabeleine, but others maybe interested. My father fought in Hungarian army and joined a resistance movement in hungary after soviet control in 1945. In 1948 he escaped to austria but i found old documents of his which strongly suggest an on-going anti-soviet resistance continued in 1947-48 in hungary. The interesting thing about this is that there is a very strong link to the English army supporting some of the hungarians. It would be fascinating if someone could point to proof of english assistance given to hungarian resistance in the 1946-1949 period.

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Re: The longest active anticommunist partizans

Post by jola » 28 Aug 2009 15:06

The last Polish partisan was gunned down in 1963.
The Lublin field office of the Polish secret police, the Służba Bezpieczeństwa, had already begun a plan to capture or kill him as early as November 1951, under the codename "Pozar" ("Fire"). In time over 100 different people were involved in the effort to locate and eliminate him. Agents of the SB installed bugs in several houses in the villages around Lublin. In of May of 1957, the first such device was implanted in the house that belonged to Czeslawa Franczak, Jozef's sister. Soon afterwards, bugs were installed in the house of another sister, Celina Mazur, as well as elsewhere.

Finally, in 1963, he was betrayed by a relative of his mistress, Danuta Mazur. Stanislaw Mazur informed the secret police of Franczak's whereabouts and his planned meeting with Danuta Mazur, who was also the mother of his child. On 21 October 1963, 35 functionaries of ZOMO (a paramilitary riot police) unit surrounded a barn in Majdan Kozic Górnych, a village where Franczak was in hiding. They demanded his surrender; Franczak presented himself as a local peasant, but after having been asked about identity documents, he opened fire and was mortally wounded in the ensuing firefight. After an autopsy, Franczak's body (without its head), was returned to his family. He was buried in the cemetery in Piaski Wielkie.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B3zef_Franczak

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