Info: Lesser Known JAAF Types

Discussions on the equipment used by the Axis forces, apart from the things covered in the other sections. Hosted by Juha Tompuri
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Robert Hurst
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Post by Robert Hurst » 08 Oct 2003 09:52

Hi

Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurugi (Sabre)

Anticipating that the varied collection of obsolescent combat aircraft and trainers set aside for taiatari suicide attacks in the event of an invasion of the homeland would be insufficient to rout the Allied forces, on 20 January, 1945, the Japanese Army instructed Nakajima to build a specially designed suicide attack aeropane. The aircraft was to be easy to build, maintain and fly, and provision had to be made in its design for carrying a single bomb. Power was to be supplied by any air-cooled radial engne with a rating of 800 - 1,300 hp. Maximum speed was specified at 340 km/h (211 mph) with the undercarriage in position and 515 km/h (320 mph) after jettisoning.

Assisted by personnel of the Mitaka Kenkyujo (Mitaka Research Institute) and Ota Seishakusho KK (Ota Manufacturing Co Ltd), Engineer Aori Kunihiro designed the Ki-115a Suicide Attacker Tsurugi (Sabre). Planned to be built by semi-skilled labour, and structural and aerodynamic detailing was of secondary importance. The aircraft was the essence of simplicity. The all-metal wings had stressed-skin outer surfaces, the fuselage had a steel structure with tin engine cowling and steel panels on the front- and centre-sections, and the fabric-covered tail surfaces had a wooden structure. Welded steel-tube was used for the non-retractable main undercarriage, which was jettisoned after take-off. A variety of surplus engines could be used and were to be attached to the fuselage by four bolts, but all aircraft built were fitted with a 1,150 hp Nakajima [Ha-35] 23 (Ha-25) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial, rated at 1,130 hp for take-off and 980 hp at 6,000 m (19,685 ft). The pilot sat in an open cockpit above the wing trailing edges and provision was made for a single bomb of up to 800 kg (1,764 lb) attached to a recessed crutch under the fuselage centre-section.

The first prototype was completed in March 1945 and flight tests began immediately. As could be expected from such a crash programme, the results were disappointing and the aircraft suffered from extremely poor handling characteristics on the ground. The crudity of the undercarriage, built of welded steel piping and lacking shock absorbers, combined with poor forward vision from the cockpit, rendered the aircraft difficult to handle, and modifications were required before handing the aircraft over to pilots with limited experience. By the time basic flight tests were completed in June 1945, a redesigned undercarriage with shock absorbers was fitted and auxiliary flaps attached to the inboard wing trailing edges were added. Provision was made on the 104 production aircraft for two solid-fuel rockets under each wing to boost the aircraft's speed in its final dive. None of these aircraft became operational, but two were delivered to Showa Hikoki KK (Showa Aeroplane Co Ltd) which had been selected as the prime contractor for the proposed Toka (Wisteria) Suicide Atacker, the JNAF version of the Ki-115 which was to be powered by various reconditioned surplus engines.

The Ki-115b was a projected version with wooden wings of increased area fitted with flaps and in which the pilot's seat was moved forward. None had been completed when Japan surrendered, and the Ki-230, a development of the basic design, remained on the drawing board.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined suicide attack aircraft.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 1,150 hp Nakajima [Ha-35] 23 (Ha-25) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a three-blade fixed-pitch metal propeller.
Armament: One 250 kg (551 lb), 500 kg (1,102 lb) or 800 kg (1,764 lb) bomb semi-recessed under the fuselage.
Dimensions: Span (Ki-115a) 8.6 m (28 ft 2 9/16 in), (Ki-115b) 9.72 m (31 ft 10 11/16 in); length 8.55 m (28 ft 0 5/8 in); height 3.3 m (10 ft 9 15/16 in); wing area (Ki-115a) 12.4 sq m (133.472 sq ft), (Ki-115b) 14.5 sq m (156.076 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (Ki-115a) 1,640 kg (3,616 lb); (Ki-115b) 1,690 kg (3,726 lb); loaded (Ki-115a) 2,580 kg (5,688 lb), (Ki-115b) 2,630 kg (5,798 lb); Maximum (Ki-115a) 2,880 kg (6,349 lb); wing loading (Ki-115a) 208 kg/sq m (42.6 lb/sq ft), (Ki-115b) 181 kg/sq m (37.1 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.3 kg/hp (5.1 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (Ki-115a) 550 km/h (342 mph) at 2,800 m (9,185 ft), (Ki-115b) 620 km/h (385 mph) at 5,800 m (19,030 ft); cruising speed (Ki-115a) 300 km/h 186 mph); dervice ceiling (Ki-115b) 6,500 m (21,325 ft); range 1,200 km (745 miles).
Production: A total of 105 Ki-115as were built between March and August 1945 as follows:

1 Ki-115a prototype by Mitaka Kenkyujo at Mitaka
22 Ki-115a production aircraft by Nakajima Hikoki KK at Iwate
82 Ki-115a production aircraft by Nakajima Hikoki KK at Ota

The top two photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon. The bottom photo was taken from The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II, by David Mondey.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 08 Oct 2003 10:49

Hi

Nakajima Ki-201 Karyu (Fire Dragon)

The Karyu (Fire Dragon) twin-jet attack fighter was designed by Nakajima late in 1944 and bore a striking resemblance to the smaller Messerschmitt Me 262 fighter. The Ki-201, under construction at the end of the war, was scheduled to fly in December 1945, but quantity production of the aircraft was in doubt, as the Army had selected the Rikugun Ki-202 for priority development. Two 885 kg (1,951 lb ) thrust Ne-230 turbojets or two 908 kg (2,002 lb) thrust Ne-130 turbojets. Armament: two 20 mm (0.79 in) and two 30 mm (1.18 in) cannon. Span 13.7 m (44 ft 11 3/8 in); length 11.5 m (37 ft 8 3/4 in). Maximum speed 852 km/h (529 mph) at 10,000 m (32,810 ft); climb to 10,000 m (32,810 ft) in 13 min 15 sec.

the drawing was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 08 Oct 2003 11:16

Hi

Rikugun Ki-93

The Ki-93 was the last heavy fighter and ground attack aircraft built in Japan during the war and was the only design of the Rikugun Kokugijutsu Kenkyujo (Army Aerotechnical Research Institute) to be flown. Powered by two Mitsubishi Ha-214 einghteen-cylinder air-cooled radials, rated at 2,400 hp for take-off, 1,970 hp at 1,500 m (4,920 ft) and 1,730 hp at 8,300 m (27,730 ft), and driving six-blade propellers, the Ki-93 was designed specially to carry large calibre cannon in its under-fuselage gondola. From its inception the aircraft was designed to perform as a high-altitude heavy bomber destroyer as well as a low-altitude anti-shipping aircraft. In its bomber destroyer form (Ki-93-Ia) the aircraft carried offensive armament comprising one 57 mm (2.24 in) Ho-401 cannon and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon, while for the anti-shipping missions (Ki-93-Ib) its offensive armament comprised one 75 mm (2.95 in) Type 88 cannon and two 250 kg (551 lb) bombs. The 75 mm (2.95 in) cannon had been fitted experimentally in a Kawasaki Ki-45-KAId, but this proved to be unsuccessful as the tail assembly of the aircraft blew off when the cannon was fired. In both instances defensive armament consisted of a single hand-held 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 machine-gun. The all-metal sressed-skin fuselage was basically of circular section, the two-man crew of pilot and gunner were seated back to back under a curved hood with separate sliding sections. The cockpit and engine nacelles were heavily armoured, and all fuel tanks were self-sealing and had an automatic fire-extinguishing system. Crew being protected by 12 mm (1.47 in) armour. The windscreen was of 70 mm (2.75 in) armoured glass.

Production of the Ki-93 was entrusted to the Dai-Ichi Rikugun Kokusho (First Army Air Arsenal) at Tachikawa, and the first prototype, fitted with the armament intended for the Ki-93-Ia, was completed and flown in April 1945. The chaotic conditions prevailing in Japan at this late stage of the war delayed the flight trial programme and the tests were not completed prior to the Japanese surrender. A second prototype, in Ki-93-Ib ground attack configuration, was completed but not flown before the final collapse.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Dai-chi Rikugun Kokusho (First Army Air Arsenal).
Type: Twin-engined heavy fighter and ground attack aircraft.
Crew (2): Pilot and gunner in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: Two Mitsubishi Ha-214 eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving six-blade metal propellers.
Armament: (Ki-93-Ia) One 57 mm (2.24 in) Ho-401 cannon and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in a ventral gondola and one flexible 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type1 machine-gun, (Ki-93-Ib) One forward-firing 75 mm (2.95 in) Type 88 cannon and one flexible rear-firing 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1. External stores: (Ki-93-Ib) two 250 kg (551 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 19 m (62 ft 4 in); length 14.215 m (46 ft 7 21/32 in) height 4.85 m (15 ft 10 15/16 in); wing area 54.75 sq m (589.322 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 7,686 kg (16,945 lb); loaded 10,660 kg (23,501 lb); wing loading 194.7 kg/sq m (39.9 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.2 kg/hp (4.9 lb/hp).
Performance: maximum speed 624 km/h (388 mph) at 8,300 m (27,230 mph); cruising speed 350 km/h (217 mph); climb to 6,000 m (19,685 ft) in 9 min 3 sec; service ceiling 12,050 m (39,530 ft); maximum range 3,000 km (1,864 miles).
Production: Two Ki-93 prototypes were built by the Dai-Ichi Rikugun Kokusho at tachikawa in 1945.

The photo was taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 09 Oct 2003 10:47

Hi

Tachikawa KKY1 and 2

In August 1932, the Japanese Army had a requirement for a small, light-weight ambulance aircraft, and placed an order for such an aircraft with KK Ishikawajima Hikoki Seisakusho (Ishikawajima Aeroplane Manufacturing Co Ltd). Based on the company's experience with the R-5 trainer, and design concepts found in the imported de Havilland DH 83 Fox Moth* light transport, Ryockichi Endo, with the support of Moriyuki Nakagawa, undertook the project.

The company designated the aircraft KKY, which stood for Kogata Kei Kanja Yusoki or Small Type Light Patient Transport. This 'small type' ambulance was to supplement the 'standard type' which at that time was the Nakajima-Fokker Universal converted for ambulance use. The KKY carried a pilot, stretchers for two patients, a seat for one medical attendant, and medical supplies and equipment stipulated by the Army's Senior Surgeon, Dr Yoshinobu Teraji. The KKY type was designed to operate from small airstrips for emergency evacuations. Low-pressure tyres, having a wider foor-print, were fitted when these aircraft were to be operated from unprepared strips.

Althought the first prototype was completed in December 1933, it took a long time to complete flying and serviceability trials and make the necessary modifications, and it was not until February 1935 that this first KKY was considered acceptable. After still further, but minor modifications, to the first aircraft, a small number of additional aircraft were manufactured from 1936 to 1940.

The KKY was a single-engined biplane. It had a welded steel tube fuselage, wooden unequal-span wings, and an aluminium empennage, which was fabric-covered. The aircraft was designed for, and first built with, the 120 hp Cirrus Hermes Mk.IV inverted air-cooled inline engine, driving a two-blade fixed-pitch metal propeller. Problems continued with the Cirrus engine, and later models from October 1938 were powered by the 150 hp Gasuden Jimpu seven-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade fixed-pitch wooden propeller. The wings, with Clark Y aerofoil section, had the area increased to improve short-field performance. This later version was designated the KKY-2 Kogata Kei Kanja Yusoki Kaizogata, the last word meaninf modified version. By this time the company name had changed to Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).

The KKYs were put into service as Aikoku-go aircraft (purchased through private donations) and were widely used in air-evacuation duties during the Sino-Japanese conflict up to the early stages of the Pacific War.

Technical Data (Relates to first prototype)

Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined airborne ambulance aircraft.
Crew (2): Pilot and medical attendant plus two patients.
powerplant: One 120-135 hp Cirrus Hermes Mk.IV four-cylinder inverted air-cooled inline engine, driving a two-blade fixed-pitch metal propeller.
Dimensions: Span 10 m (32 ft 9 1/2 in); length 7.90 m (25 ft 11 in); height 2.38 m (7 ft 9 1/4 in); wing area 22 sq m (236.813 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 560 kg (1,234 lb); loaded 977 kg (2,154 lb); wing loading 44.4 kg/sq m (9.1 lb/sq ft); power loading 7.24 kkg/hp (15.9 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 181.6 km/h (112.8 mph); cruising speed 155 km/h (96.7 mph); landing speed 79.7 km/h (49.5 mph); taake-off/landing distance aprroximately 250 m (820 ft); climb to 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in 14 min; service ceiling 4,500 m (14,763 ft); range 620 km (385 miles).
Production: A total of twenty-three KKY-1 and -2s were built by Tachikawa Hikoki KK between 1933 and 1940.

* Three DH 83 Fox Moths had been imported into Japan, of which two had been modified into ambulance aircraft for the Japanese Army.

The two photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh and Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 09 Oct 2003 11:54

Hi

Tachikawa Ki-70

Designed as a replacement for the Mitsubishi Ki-46, the Tachikawa Ki-70 (code-named 'Clara') by the Allies, never entered production as its performance fell below that of advanced versions of its predecessor. In March 1939, two years after issuing the specification to which the Ki-46 was designed and eight months before the first flight of that aircraft, the Koku Hombu instructed Tachikawa Hikoki KK to design a still faster and longer-ranged reconnaissance aircraft which received the designation Ki-70. The aircraft proposed by Tachikawa was a twin-engined mid-wing cantilever monoplane with laminar flow aerofoil sections. The crew of three included an observer manning a flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in the glazed nose, the pilot seated just forward of the wing leading edge and the radio-operator manning a flexible 12.7 mm (0.5 in) machine-gun in the rear fuselage. To improve the field of fire of the rear-firing machine-gun, twin fins and rudders were adopted. With two Mitsubishi Ha-104M eighteen-cylinder radials, rated at 1,900 hp for take-off, 1,810 hp at 2,200 m (7,220 ft) and 1,610 hp at 6,100 m (20,015 ft), a top speed of 647 km/h (402 mph) at 5,400 m (17,715 ft) was anticipated.

Consruction of two pototypes progressed slowly, and the first Ki-70 was not completed until February 1943. When flight tests began, the results were immediately disappointing as the Ki-70's weight exceeded calculated values by a considerable amount. Consequently, wing loading was excessive and the aircraft was hard to handle durng take-off and landing. Inflight handling characteristics could hardly be considered satisfactory and the maximum speed reached during the trials was 580 km/h (360 mph), which compared poorly with the top speed of 604 and 630 km/h (375 and 391 mph) respectively rreached by the Ki-46-II and -III. In an effort to improve performance a third prototype was built with two turbosupercharged Mitsubish Ha-211-I Ru radials, rated at 2,200 hp for take-off, 2,070 hp at 1,000 m (3,280 ft) and 1,720 hp at 9,500 m (31,170 ft). However, the Ha-211-I Ru was unreliable and the Ki-70 was still overweight, forcing the Koku Hombu to abandon its support for the programme.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Twin-engined reconnaissance aircraft;
Crew (3): Pilot, observer and radio-operator/gunner in enclosed cockpits.
Powerplant: Two Mitsubishi Ha-221-I Ru eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving four-blade metal propellers.
Armament: One fleible forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun and one flexible rear-firng 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-gun.
Dimensions: Span 17.8 m (58 ft 4 25/32 in); length 14.5 m (47 ft 6 7/8 in); height 3.46 m (11 ft 4 7/32 in); wing area 43 sq m ( 462.846 sq ft).
Weights: (with Ha-104) Empty 5,895 kg (12,996 lb), loaded 9,855 kg (21,727 lb); maximum 10,700 kg (23,598 lb); wing loading 229.2 kg/sq m (46.9 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.6 kg/hp (5.7 lb/hp).
Performance: (with Ha-104) maximum speed 647 km/h (402 mph) at 5,400 m (17,715 ft); cruising speed 490 km/h (304 mph) at 5,400 m (17,715 ft); climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in 5 min; service ceiling 11,000 m (36,090 ft); range 2,480 km (1,541 miles).
Production: A total of three Ki-70s were built by Tachikawa Hikoki KK in 1943.

The photo was taken form Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 10 Oct 2003 10:25

Hi

Tachikawa Ki-74

Although first conceived as early as 1939, the Tachikawa Ki-74 had not been placed in full production when the Pacific war ended. During those six years its intended role had been changed from that of long-range reconnaissance to that of long-range stratospheric bombing.

Under the guidance of Dr Kimura, the Ki-74 was originally designed in the spring of 1939 to meet the requirements of a specification issued by the Koku Hombu and calling for a long-range reconnaissance aircraft capable of operating west of Lake Baikal from Manchurian bases. The aircraft was to have a range of 5,000 km (3,107 miles) at a cruising speed of at least 450 km/h (280 mph). To meet these performance requirements, Dr Kimura proposed using a pair of 2,400 hp Mitsubishi Ha-214M radials driving six-blade propellers. and fitting a pressure cabin. However, pending development of the pressure cabin system tested on the Tachikawa SS-1 and A-26/Ki-77, the project was temporarily suspended.

Late in 1941 the project was revived as a long-range high-altitude bomber-reconnaissance aircraft capable of bombing the United States mainland. To fit the aircraft for its new role, Tachikawa added bombing equipment, self-sealing fuel tanks and armour to the original design and decided to replace the Ha-214M engines with a pair of Mitsubishi Ha-211-I radials, rated at 2,200 hp for take-off, 2,070 hp at 1,000 m (3,280 ft) and 1,720 hp at 9,500 m (31,170 ft). The design of the aircraft was approved by the Koku Hombu in September 1942 and construction of three prototypes was authorised. The first prototype, completed in March 1944, was followed by two externally identical aircraft which were powered by a pair of turbosupercharged Ha-211-I Ru radials, rated at 2,200 hp for take-off, 2,070 hp at 1,000 m (3,280 ft) and 1,720 hp at 9,500 m (31,170 ft). However, during the flight trial programme both versions of the Mitsubishi Ha-211 suffered from teething troubles and it was decided to replace them on the pre-producion aircraft with the lower-powered but more reliable turbosupercharged Mitsubishi Ha-104 Ru radials, rated at 2,000 hp for take-off, 1,900 hp at 2,000 m (6,560 ft) and 1,750 hp at 6,000 m (19,685 ft).

Thirteen Ha-104 Ru powered pre-production aircraft were built and were still undergoing tests when the war ended. All five crew members were seated in a pressure cabin in the forward fuselage, and the aircraft was armed with a single remotely-controlled 12.7 mm (0.5 in) machine-gun in the tail and carried a bomb-load of 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). Plans were made to use the Ki-74s in bombing attacks against B-29 bases at Saipan as soon as sufficient aircraft were available, but the Japanese surrender terminated the project. Although the Ki-74 was never encountered during the war, the Allies were aware of its development, but thinking at first that it was a 'super-range, high-speed fighter' intended for long-range escort duty they accordingly assigned to it a male name: 'Pat'; when the true role of the aircraft was discovered the code-name was changed to 'Patsy'.

The fourth pre-production aircraft (Ki-74 c/n 7) was modified in 1944 to undertake non-stop flights between Japan and Germany, but the Third Reich capitulated before the first of these flights could be made. Other developments included a pure bomber version, the Ki-74-II with the bomb-load increased to 2,000 kg (4,410 lb), and a transport version, but both these projects were abandoned before completion.

The top photo was taken from the Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, by David Donald. The middle and bottom photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Twin-engined high-altitude long-range reconnaissance-bomber.
Crew (5): Enclosed in pressure cabin.
Powerplant: (1st prototype) Two Mitsubishi Ha-211-I eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving four-blade metal propellers, (2nd and 3rd prototypes) two Mitsubishi Ha-221-I Ru eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving four-blade metal propellers, (4th-16th aircraft) two Mitsubishi Ha-104 eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving four-blade metal propellers.
Armament: One remotely-controlled 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-gun. Bomb-load: 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).
Dimensions: Span 27 m (88 ft 7 in); length 17.65 m (57 ft 10 7/8 in); height 5.1 m (16 ft 8 25/32 in); wing area 80 sq m (861.11 sq ft).
weights: Empty 10,200 kg (22,487 lb); loaded 19,400 kg (42,770 lb); wing loading 242.5 kg/sq m ( 49.7 lb/sq ft); power loading 4.4 kg/hp (9.7 lb/hp).
Performance: maximum speed 570 km/h (354 mph) at 8,500 m (27,890 ft) cruising speed 400 km/h (249 mph) at 8,000 m (26,245 ft); climb to 8,000 m (26,245 ft) in 17 min; service ceiling 12,000 m (39,370 ft); range 8,000 km (4,971 miles).
Production: A total of 16 Ki-74s were built by Tachikawa Hikoki KK between march 1944 and August 1945.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 10 Oct 2003 13:31

Hi

Tachikawa A-26/Ki-77

During the thirties the strong rivalry existing between the largest newspapers in Japan had resulted in several famous record flights and, in late 1939, the Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Press) were studying the possibility of bettering the recent round-the-world flight by J-BACI, a modified Mitsubishi G3M2, which had been sponsored by their rivals the Mainichi Shimbun. The management of Asahi Shimbun agreed that the most promising way to recapture the interest of the Japanese populace was to sponsor a non-stop flight between Tokyo and New York. As no aircraft then available had sufficient range for this flight, Asahi Shimbun approached the Aeronautical Research Institute of the University of Tokyo in January 1940 with a request that they design a new aircraft with a range exceeding 15,000 km (9,321 miles) at a mimimum cruising speed of 300 km/h (186 mph). The aircraft was to fly in the sub-stratosphere and, besides its primary use as a long-distance record-breaking machine, was to serve in the development of a future stratospheric transport.

With the approval of the Japanese Army work began in earnest in March 1940, the project receiving the designation A-26 - the 'A' referring to the sponsoring Asahi Shimbun and the '26' standing for the first two digits of the current Japanese year, 2600 (AD 1940). Members of the Aeronautical Research Institute of the University of Tokyo, led by Dr H Kimura, were responsible for the basic design while Tachikawa Hikoki KK, which appointed Ryokichi Endo as their chief project engineer, were responsible for detailed engineering drawings and the manufacture of the aircraft. Dr Kimura decided to power the A-26 with two 1,000 hp Nakajima Ha-105 fourteen-cylinder double-row radials enclosed in close-fitting cowlings inspired by those of the Curtiss-Wright CW-20, but eventully the aircraft was powered by two Nakajima Ha-115 fourteen-cylinder radials, rated at 1,170 hp for take-off and 1,000 hp at 4,300 m (4,110 ft), a development of the earlier Ha-105 with a lower reduction ratio. Initially it was hoped that the 'sealed oxygen cabin', unpressurised but sealed to prevent loss of oxygen, would necessitate only mimimum use of oxygen masks by the crew, but in event the crew members were to suffer the discomfort of wearing their masks continuously. A wing of laminar flow section, designed by Professor Fukazu of the University of Tokyo, with six-degrees dihedral and an aspect ratio of 11 was adopted as it offered the best compromise between the conflicting requirements imposed by long-range operation and ease of production. In the wing were located the fuel tanks with a total capacity of 11,155 litres (2,542 Imp gal). Having resolved the basic configuration of the aircraft, detailed engineering drawing began in the autumn of 1940, the first flight being tentatively scheduled for November 1941. Minor design problems forced a first postponement until February 1942, but the beginning of hostilities in the Pacific compromised the future of the aircraft as tachikawa were instructed to concentrate on military programmes.

In the summer of 1942 the project was revived again as a long-range communication aeroplane for the Japanese Army which wished to maintain a line of communication with the other Axis powers. Now bearing the military designation Ki-77, the aircraft was completed in September 1942 and, after delays caused by engine cooling difficulties, made its first flight from Tachikawa Airfield on 18 November, 1942, with pilots Kamada and Nagatomo at the controls. Flying characteristics were found fully satisfactory during flight trials, but the engine cowlings had to be modified several times due to overheating on the ground. Finally the problem was solved and the Ki-77 gave a first demonstration of its capability on 20-21 April, 1943, when it flew non-stop from Fussa, Tokyo Prefecture, to Singapore covering 5,330 km (3,312 miles) in 19 hr 13 min. A second prototype began flight trials the following month to readied for the Seiko (Success) flight between Japan and Germany. This flight was actually attempted on 7 July,1 943, but the aircraft was lost over the Indian Ocean, possibly due to an encounter with British fighters, on its way from Singapore to Berlin.

Despite their preoccupation with the ever gloomier war situation, the Japanese decided to attack unoficially, the world closed-circuit distance record. An 865 km (537.5 miles) circuit between Sinking, Peichengtu and Harbin, Manchuria, was selected and, starting on 2 July, 1944 at Sinking airfield, the first prototype Ki-77 - the aircraft originally intended to fly non-stop from Tokyo to New York - flew nineteen circuits (16,435 km or 10,212 miles) in 57 hr 12 min, thus gaining for Japan an unrecognised world record.

Surviving the war, the aircraft was last flown between Yamanashi Airfield and Yokosuka in US markings to be shipped to the United States where it was eventually scrapped.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Twin-engined long-range experimental aircraft.
Crew (5): All in sealed oxygen cabin
Powerplants: Two Nakajima Ha-115 fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engnes, driving three-blade constant-speed metal propellers.
Dimensions: Span 29.438 m (96 ft 6 31/32 in); length 15.3 m (50 ft 2 3/8 in); height 3.85 m (12 ft 7 9/16 in); wing area 79.56 sq m (856.373 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 7,237 kg (15,955 lb); loaded 16,725 kg (36,872 lb); wing loading 210.2 kg/sq m (43.1 lb/sq ft) power loading 7.15 kg/hp (15.75 lb/hp).
Performance: maximum speed 440 km/h (273 mph) at 4,600 m (15,090 ft); cruising speed 300 km/h (186 mph); climb to 6,000 m (19,685 ft) in 24 min; service ceiling 8,700 m (28,545 ft); range 18,000 km (11,185 miles).
Production: Two aircraft built by Tachikawa Hikoki KK in 1942 and 1943.

Regards

Bob
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Robert Hurst
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Post by Robert Hurst » 11 Oct 2003 10:06

Hi

Tachikawa Ki-94

Preliminary discussions regarding a heavily armed high-altitude fighter were held between the Koku Hombu and Tachikawa Hikoki KK in mid-1942. At that time the Japanese Army wanted to obtain a fighter fitted with a pressure cabin and capable of reaching a top speed of 800 km/h (497 mph) and having a maximum range of 3,000 km (1,864 miles). As these performance requirements were rather stringent, the Koku Hombu decided to instruct Tachikawa to proceed with the design of the aircraft while they placed a contract with Nakajima for another high-altitude fighter with a less stringent range requirement. The aircraft proposed by Tachikawa, which received the designation Ki-94 (later Ki-94-I), was of highly unconventional design. The aircraft was a large twin-boom monoplane powered by two 2,200 hp Mitsubishi Ha-211 Ru eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radials which were mounted fore and aft of the pilot's cockpit and drove four-blade tractor and pusher propellers. Proposed armament included two 37 mm (1.46 in) Ho-203 cannon and two 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 cannon, and a maximum speed of 780 km/h (485 mph) at 10,000 m (32,810 ft) was anticipated. A full-size wooden mock-up was completed late in 1943, but development of the aircraft was discontinued as the Technical Department of the Koku Hombu judged the project too complex and its calculated performance unduly optimistic.

Soon after, Tachikawa submitted a new proposal designed to meet the same requirements as the competitive Nakajima Ki-87. The new aircraft was a single-engined single-seat high-altitude fighter of conventional design with laminar-flow wings and featuring a pressure cabin mounted in the fuselage behind the wing trailing edges. The aircraft was to be powered by a fan-cooled turbosupercharged 2,400 hp Nakajima [Ha-44] 12 eighteen-cylinder radial, rated at 2,450 hp for take-off, 2,350 hp at 1,100 m (3,610 ft), 2,200 hp at 4,400 m (14,453 ft) and 2,040 hp at 11,000 m (36,090 ft), and drivng a six-blade propeller, and the wing-mounted armament was to include two 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 cannon and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon. The proposal was accepted by the Koku Hombu which ordered one static test airframe, three prototypes and eighteen pre-production aircraft under the designation Ki-94-II. The first Ki-94-II was scheduled for completion on 20 July, 1945, but eventually was completed two weeks behind schedule. The six-blade propeller planned for the Ki-94-II was not ready in time, and it was decided to begin testing of the first prototype on 18 August, 1945, by temporarily fitting a four-blade airscrew. A second protoype, intended to be fitted with the six-blade propeller, was under construction, but the end of the war prevented it from being completed, while the first aircraft was still being readied for its intended maiden flight three days later.

The two photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Rene J Francillon.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined high-altitude fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in pressurised cockpit.
Powerplant: One 2,400 hp Nakajima [Ha-44] 12 eighteen-cylinder air-cooled rdial engine, driving a (1st prototype) four-blade or (planned production aircraft) six-blade constant-speed metal propeller.
Armament: two wing-mounted 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 cannon and two wing-mounted 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon. External stores: one 500 kg (1,102 lb) bomb.
Dimensions: Span 14 m (45 ft 11 3/16 in); length 12 m (39 ft 4 7/16 in); height 4.65 m (15 ft 3 1/16 in); wing area 28 sq m (301.388 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 4,690 kg (10,340 lb); loaded 6,450 kg (14,220 lb); wing loading 230.4 kg/sq m (37.2 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.6 kg/hp (5.8 lb)/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 712 km/h (442 mph) at 12,000 m (39,370 ft); cruising speed 440 km/h (273 mph) at 9,000 m (29,530 ft); climb to 10,000 m (32,810 ft) in 17 min 38 sec; service ceiling 14,680 m (48,170 ft); range 2,100 km (1,305 miles).
Production: One prototype competed by Tachikawa Hikoki KK in August 1945.

Regards

Bob
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Robert Hurst
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Post by Robert Hurst » 11 Oct 2003 10:46

Hi

Tokyo Koku Ki-107

Intended as a successor to the Kokusai Ki-86a, the Ki-107 was an experimental all-wood two-seat primary trainer. Powered by a 110 hp Hitachi Ha-47 inline engine, the sole prototype of the Ki-107 made its first flight in February 1944. Later in the year the aircraft was destroyed during a heavy landing, and its development was suspended. Span 10.02 m (32 ft 10 1/2 in); length 8.05 m (26 ft 4 15/16 in). Loaded weight 829 kg (1,828 lb). Maximum speed 197 km/h (122 mph); range 475 km (295 miles).

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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tom!
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Location: Dorsten Germany

Re: Info: Lesser Known JAAF Types

Post by tom! » 12 Jun 2019 16:48

Hi.

Primary Trainer Glider:

Fukuda Ki-23 Training Sailplane:

Image

Sry for the bad quality....

Copy of a german contest sailplane.


Tachikawa Ki-24 Training Glider:

Image

Yes, that´s the whole glider, Nothing missing…

Yours

tom! :wink:

Cantankerous
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Posts: 530
Joined: 01 Sep 2019 21:22
Location: Newport Coast

Re: Info: Lesser Known JAAF Types

Post by Cantankerous » 16 Dec 2021 03:20

tom! wrote:
12 Jun 2019 16:48
Hi.

Primary Trainer Glider:

Fukuda Ki-23 Training Sailplane:

Image

Sry for the bad quality....

Copy of a german contest sailplane.


Tachikawa Ki-24 Training Glider:

Image

Yes, that´s the whole glider, Nothing missing…

Yours

tom! :wink:
More details about the Ki-23 and Ki-24 can be found at this link:
https://www.secretprojects.co.uk/thread ... ders.4357/

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