Polish Military In American Army

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henryk
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Polish Military In American Army

Post by henryk » 04 Dec 2012 19:57

In World War II, the vast majority of the Polish Army fought in association with France, the United Kingdom and Canada. Uniquely a Polish Formation outside the Polish Army was part of the American Army, They served as Military Police. The core was "the Holy Cross Mountains Brigade (Polish: Brygada Świętokrzyska), a tactical unit of the Polish underground NSZ organization, which did not obey orders to merge with the Home Army in 1944 and as a result was part of the NSZ-ZJ faction." It was supplement by Polish Army POW and Polish Displaced Persons recruits. The Americans also used other nationalities. Surprisingly the only detailed information I could find was in German.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Cross ... quote]Even though the planned uprising in Plzeň never materialized (due to other reasons), with the onset of May, the brigade renewed the fight against the Germans and on May 5 liberated the concentration camp at Holýšov,[1] which led the United States to recognize it as an Allied military unit.[2] On the following day, the brigade fought alongside troops of the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division in the assault that liberated Pilzeň from Wehrmacht occupation forces and restored it to Czechoslovakia.

Following the end of the war in Europe, the presence of the brigade in Czechoslovakia became a contentious political issue for the U.S. forces. The British War Office declined to accept the brigade as a reinforcement unit for Polish forces under their command and communist officials in Poland, the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia raised accusations that the brigade had collaborated with the Nazis and should be turned over to communist authorities for trial. On August 6, 1945, the brigade was disarmed and moved to a displaced persons camp in Coburg. Ironically, this allowed Colonel Szacki to recruit from the Poles in the DP camp, and by November 1945, the brigade numbered some 4,000 personnel.

Subsequently, men of the brigade were used in the formation of 25 Polish guard companies in the American occupied zone of Germany. The U.S. CIC kept tabs on the brigade's leadership during this time as the U.S. Army did not want any incidents with the Soviet forces. The brigade headquarters was demobilized on June 17, 1946 and, under the pressure of diplomacy from the communists, most of the Polish guard companies were disbanded in 1947. The formal alliances among members of the brigade are believed to have gradually dissolved by 1950, and later some of the senior officers of the brigade resettled in the United States.[3]][/quote]

http://www.usfava.com/LaborService/history.htm
In German. Google translation. I hope this is better than the usual Google Polish translations.
History of the laboratory service of the U.S. Armed Forces Europe

GENERAL:

In June 1944 covered by the planners of Staff U.S. Forces European Theater (USFET) about the possibility of using the freed after a successful invasion of the human potential of various labor, internment and concentration camps meaningful.

When HQ USFET existed an exile Staff of the Polish Army, the Americans discussed in relation to this issue and proposals submitted. Here between the Polish army in exile and USFET a contract has been negotiated, the setting liberated Polish forced laborers and prisoners drawn up regulated in the laboratory service formations. It was hoped that these LS-devices could be used even during the war, but in 1945 had the political and military situation changed dramatically in favor of the Allies. The war's end came sooner than expected and the laboratory service was not yet organized. The said Treaty with the Allied High Command signed the then principal liaison officer of the Polish army in exile, Colonel Janusz Ilinski. The main compound in USFET Department was headed by the American Colonel Anthony D. Biddle. This was a former ambassador in Warsaw. The Treaty allowed the wages of the members of the newly drawn up according to scale laboratory service of the Polish Armed Forces in England. The size of the LS units was not specified in the contract. On the basis of this agreement granted the commander of the 7th U.S. Army (Heidelberg) and the 3rd U.S. Army (Munich) the preparation instructions for LS associations. These were initially intended only as a guard units.

With Order No. 123, 08/12/44, the staff of USFET officially ordered for the establishment of military labor service (Military Laboratory Service).

The organization of the "Military Service Laboratory" was established in the Standing Operating Procedure (SOP) No. 80 of 20/05/46 (HQ USFET).

A laboratory service company was under a Labor Supervision Company, in turn, a laboratory Supervision Center and this was under a Labor Supervision Area. These monitoring units it was American bars with the following cast:

- Lab Supv Area: 8 officers, 8 sergeants

- Lab Supv Cen: 4 officers, 9 sergeants

- Lab Supv Co: 2 officers, 7 sergeants

After occupation of Germany in Frankfurt, the headquarters of the USFET built. In this there was the Laboratory Services Division of the General Staff Department G-4. This Laboratory Services Division, again were two laboratory Supervision Areas (7 and 9). Area 7 supported the Continental Base Command and Area 9, the 7th U.S. Army.

Because it is in the "laboratory services" were no generally applicable rules and standards, the working conditions in the different units were very different. To unify them, the Major Leopold Koziebrodzki suggested as a liaison officer of the Poles at the headquarters of the 7th U.S. Army plans to start a Polish main connection department to monitor the working conditions, supplementary actions to control, establish new units and train new hires guards should. The U.S. Army Command welcomed the proposal and with command of 3:11:45, the first Polish Liaison departments established at the respective U.S. monitoring unit. The leadership of the Polish Liaison Department at the 9th Laboratory Supervision Area took Colonel Sobolta with a staff of 4 officers, 4 translators in the rank of officer and four office-commissioned officers. The highest rank in the guard units was until November 1950 the "Major Guard". That rank the respective heads of departments connection acquired in laboratory supervision centers.

Existed since 1945, at the 3rd U.S. Army in Bad Tolz, a monitoring area (8th Labor Supervision Area) with two Polish liaison officers. In April 1946, the 3rd U.S. army was dissolved, which was 8th Lab Supv area incorporated into the 9th Lab Supv Area and this took over the overall monitoring of the existing LS-units of the 3rd U.S. Army and the 7th U.S. Army.

A portion of the LS staff (about 8000) was under the Continental Base Command (supply zone) in Bad Nauheim and was monitored by the laboratory 7th Supervision Area. In April 1947, both areas were dissolved and the Laboratory Services Division of the USFET renamed U.S. Army Europe (USAREUR) forces moved along with the General Staff from Frankfurt to Heidelberg. The connection departments were in the respective laboratory Supervision Center staff, while the main connection of the 9th Division Laboratory Supervision Area was until the dissolution of the area allocated to the 1947th The main compound was incorporated into the Department of Laboratory Services Division of the General Staff, USAREUR.

For years, entertained every nationality own connection departments, depending on the number of staff in a particular area.

In May 1945 by the U.S. forces was the first Polish LS-guard company (7555th LS Guard Company), mainly consisting of former soldiers of the former battalion of the Polish army in exile 7555, prepared in accordance with U.S. regulations (TOE). This sparked off an American prisoner of war guard company in Mannheim.

If American agencies to fulfill their responsibilities were, they turned to the nearest camp of former Polish prisoner of war, appointed a Polish officer with the organization of a guard company and the officer then put due to missing American service instructions under Polish pattern on a kind of Polish guard company under American leadership. Besides guard battalions and companies created one even tried to set up a guard regiment, which was unsuccessful.

Focus newly established Polish guard units including long water was at Nuremberg. There, the former prison camp was under the command of the Polish colonel Tomaszewski and a second camp, in which the Polish "Holy Cross Brigade" was located.

Furthermore, in Murnau in Bavaria existed the officers' camp Oflag VIIa occupied by officers of the Polish Army. From camps in Nuremberg and from the Murnau Oflag several guard companies created under the supervision of two Lab Supv centers.

By early 1951, there were only LS-companies, which were placed under a laboratory Supervision Center. The preparation of own centers LS and LS Areas took place after issuance of the EUCOM command No. 322 dated 03/26/51.

Since the occupation forces steadily reduced their staff, had the task of guarding newly formations of laboratory services are applied. There was plenty of willing service from amongst former soldiers of the Polish army, but less from the officer corps. In the officers' camp Murnau (Oflag VIIa) about 5500 Polish officers were interned, of which only 150 reported at the newly established security companies. At that time, officers were on guard duty not interested.

The guard units are also reported officers and men of the Polish Holy Cross Brigade (Cavalry Swietokrzyska). Former Stalag Bad Kreuznach (Stalag = main camp), where Poland and prisoners of other Slavic origin were housed was converted into a training camp for guard units .

To oust the military nature of the wax formations, was banned in April 1946, to wear any insignia and salute. Until then were Polish officers and officers decorate their American uniforms with badges Polish. The abolition of the rank insignia was detrimental to the good order and discipline, so in June 1946, new rank insignia and white and red crest was introduced with company numbers. Guard units were already therefore no military units, because the training of the guards took more than 3 weeks and the only light weapons guns were allowed.

Also in some German circles rose sse n the Polish formations of laboratory services to dislike. It was thought then that the recolouring of the uniforms had been from olive green to dark blue caused by Soviet actions that promoted German circles. The dark blue color should be emphasized that the guard units were only auxiliary formations. The German POWs wore dark blue uniforms and the word "PW - Prisoner of War" on the back. Many guards suffered therefore very uniform in this equality.

In 1947, five Polish LS transport companies (2036, 2908, 2951, 7666, 8168) and an LS motor repair company (8058) the American Graves Registration Command in France assumed and performed service by salvaging dead, grave-digging and Register of grave sites. Upon completion of this mission, the units were moved back to Germany or released. Only the 2908th LS Truck Co was moved to Liege (Belgium) to the rescue, identification, installation and burial of fallen American in second World War continue.

As the task force may 4189th LS Co (Guard) are mentioned. She was for the protection of the headquarters of the 3rd U.S. Army and later the HQ EUCOM, as well as key U.S. military authorities, military installations and residential areas of the U.S. Army in Heidelberg responsible.

The first Baltic LS companies emerged beginning of 1947. They reached a strength of 3500 people were the same Lab Supv centers assigned as Polish companies.

In November 1950, with the establishment of supply lines through France, publishes a number of Polish LS units to France to ensure the necessary security of lines of communication.

These associations were increased in 1956 to 2,700 men. The lack of usable spare, as well as normal wear and tear and the reduction of orders resulted in the following years to a gradual decrease in the labor force up to 1190 workers at the end of 1966. The resolution of the utilities in France (FRELOC) made in the first quarter of 1967, the relocation of Polish workers necessary to West Germany, where they are a permanent working relationship with the U.S. Armed Forces was offered.

EDUCATION:

In order to ensure consistent training of the guards of the LS, it was decided that all members of the LS-guard companies to undergo a special training. It was also intended for the training of leaders, sub-leaders and the management and key personnel. It the "Polish military Polish military unit PWX Camp No. 1" in Bad Kreuznach was renamed in early 1946 "Recovered Allied Military Personnel Center Guard Replacement". This was followed by an alteration of the name in "Guard Training Center." To view the demilitarization, the word "civilian" was preceded by the designation. in April 1946 extended the Polish members of the CGTC the designation to "T. Kosciuszko Civilian Guard Training and Replacement Center", the so-called Kosciuszko Camp (named after the former General the Polish Army). In July 1946, was re-name change. The camp was called "Theatre Civilian Guard Training and Replacement Center". These frequent name changes are evidence of a permanent transformation of the LS-organization. The aim of the training camp was the ejection of two fully formed wax companies per week.

In training camp Käfertal 133 LS-guard companies were organized, 842 LS-officers, NCOs trained LS-3787 and LS-26 087 teams. Overall, the training camp for shorter or longer time housed about 39,294 Poles and Balts.

DUTIES:

Already in November 1945, the Americans needed 25,000 guards. Prisoner of war camp in the American zone were housed until mid-1947, over 2,000,000 German prisoners. The camp at Dachau as hosted approximately 580,000 prisoners of war. At that time there seven Polish guard companies were active. Heilbronner also reported a prisoner camp population of over half a million. Apart from the German POW camps had the Polish guard units also guard camp with German war criminals at Dachau, Regensburg and Darmstadt. There were also prisons where convicted war criminals served their sentences and remand, in the Nuremberg trials should be condemned. An example is the 4010th LS Co (Guard) in Landsberg / Lech called. She was responsible for guarding the "War Crimes Prison Landsberg".

Another important task for the LS-guard companies was the guarding of military equipment and military property of the U.S. Army. End of the war all the depots and magazines of the German army and the U.S. forces were looted by the German civilian population. Only because it was possible for individuals to survive. The use of security guards prevented these attacks. Furthermore, also had apartments, clubs, shopping malls and parking lots of the members of the occupying forces are bestreift in to ensure security and order.

RESOLUTION INTENTIONS:

Early in 1947, a regular and continuous resolution of wax companies was ordered to June 1948. It was decided to form a special formation of the respective German settlements. This should be "Industrial policy" called. The candidates of the IP should be after that decision in a four-week course designed by the German police.

Such restructuring should satisfy those political forces that felt the Polish formations disturbing. However, since the establishment and work of the police industry turned out to be a failure, was stopped in December 1947, the resolution of the LS-guard units and laid-off employees were partially reinstated.

In early 1948, the Labor Service Replacement Center in Fulda was erected. The goal was the creation of new LS associations. The guard force should not exceed 12,000 men. Back in 1949 was a renewed mining, as the existing posts in the security companies due to lack of staff could not be filled. This was due to the repatriation and the emigration of many Slavic member of the LS-guard formations. In late 1950, the unit employed only 8000 men staff.

ORGANIZATION:

Wax companies had different strengths, some units employed up to 500 people. Some of the features of a company performing the service were used at various locations. A portion of the units rendered service to the U.S. Air Force in Europe. In July 1949, these units were named as LS Squadron. For these seasons were founded in Wiesbaden at HQ USAFE a connecting rod under the direction and supervision of colonel (LS).

Guard squadrons in the Air Force were excluded from the organizational LS-organization of the U.S. Army, however, held off-duty contact with the guard units of the army. It was a regular support of the "Guard Welfare Fund".

jadamzek
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Location: Netherlands

Re: Polish Military In American Army

Post by jadamzek » 31 Oct 2021 09:49

Dear mr Henryk and others
As you maybe probably noticed by the reactions, there are not much persons who know about this topic.
It is difficult to find any information.
Done this at national archives from Poland and the UK and now busy with the Us.
Before the fact this topic will be forgotten by the new generations I am doing some research about
My father.

In my mind, it is written that he was taken by the germans in 1939 in Poland and send to a labor camp.
After the liberation he joined the us army as a polish guard.
I have three documents
* An AEF DP registration card
* Linnen ID with the name Waclaw Adamazyk.
On the stamp it is written Polish Guard from the 4134 company; signed by Major Marianski
The rest is difficult to read.
* The other document is a discharge certificate from 31 august 1947. This documents mention that he was part of the 4130 Labor Service Company, from the 2004th Labor Supervision Company. This document is signed by Lt. Fred E Daniels. ( US )

Maybe you can lead me to more or others

I hope the editor will past this message

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henryk
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Re: Polish Military In American Army

Post by henryk » 31 Oct 2021 20:07

I do not have experience on this. Perhaps these links can help:
https://www.straty.pl/pl/
In Polish. Information on Poles oppressed during the German occupation, including a search form for individuals:
https://www.straty.pl/pl/szukaj

https://arolsen-archives.org/en/\
Archives for information on victims of the Germans, including search form:
https://arolsen-archives.org/en/search- ... e-archive/

https://www.army.mil/
Information on the US Army, including contact:
https://www.army.mil/contact

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henryk
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Location: London, Ontario

Re: Polish Military In American Army

Post by henryk » 01 Nov 2021 20:14

Further about contacting the US Army.
I have worked with Canadian Military Liaison Officers stationed at several Canadian Embassies, including the one at The Hague. I was surprised not to find information online on how to contact them at either the Canadian or American Embassies. Such a local contact should make it easier for you to work with the bureaucracy of the US Army.
Try contacting the US Embassy and see if you can get such a contact.
https://nl.usembassy.gov/
U.S. Embassy The Hague
John Adams Park 1
2244 BZ Wassenaar
Phone: +31 70 310-2209
Fax: +31 70 310-2207

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